Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Papers on the Intranet Papers on the Intranet Papers on the Intranet Intranet is a private PC organize utilized by a predetermined number of individuals who approach it. The ideal case of intranet is a school PC framework. Intranet is a framework dependent on the Internet advances yet the sharing of data is progressively secured because of the set number of clients and the particulars of the operational frameworks. In the event that you are composing papers on the intranet, this article is helpful for you. Articles on the Intranet Facts In this area you will locate some fundamental realities about the intranet to remember for the starting or foundation segment of your paper. Intranet is based upon indistinguishable advances from the Internet (customer server figuring) Intranet is the private or limited rendition of the web bound to the particular establishment, association, or a gathering of individuals Intranet showed up in mid 1990s in colleges Intranet has confined access despite the fact that it might likewise be open for any endorsed party Intranet doesn't essential approaches the Internet Intranet is accepted to encourage joint effort and utilized as a corporate stage in every single significant company Themes Ideas for Essays on Intranet On the off chance that you don't know how to begin composing a paper on intranet, read the accompanying subjects thoughts. What's more, you may survey the rundown of good article subjects and points for an exploration paper on our blog. What are the advantages of Intranet for organizations? What is the capacity of Intranet at college or school? What is progressively secure: Intranet or Internet? Does intranet add to all the more convenient choices? Is Intranet an integral asset for correspondence? What is the historical backdrop of Intranet development? What are the distinctions and likenesses of the Intranet and the Internet? Articles on the Intranet Custom Writing Few out of every odd individual can turn into a talented specialist and few out of every odd understudy can compose grant winning papers. We comprehend that numerous understudies are battling with article composing and offer a compelling and solid arrangement - custom paper composing. Our administrations are not offered to get your work done rather than your yet rather to assist you with the examination and composing. As our customer, you get uniquely composed paper on the Intranet made without any preparation in full understanding to the guidance. We reference all sources in the configuration you determine and furnish you with free layout and book reference list. We don't duplicate/glue and we ensure creativity of each and every sentence in composed article. You may check all the more free tips on exposition composing, research paper, research paper, coursework, and issue and arrangement article writing:http://.com/blog/issue and-arrangement exposition Peruse moreover: Thesis Proposal Thesis Help APA Thesis Essayists of Term Papers Term Schools Papers about Gospel Music
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Branch of Defense (DOD) Information Technology foundation Audit - Research Paper Example This will accomplished by CompTechÃ¢â¬â¢s criminologist controls. The organization will give a caution framework that utilizes laser innovation to distinguish interruption and report it promptly to the police. This will guarantee that the secrecy of information and data inside the DOD is shielded from interlopers. The branch of Defense (DOD) inside its orders gives that DOD data must be shielded from security breaks by at least one physical controls (Online Information for Defense Community 2012). It is in such manner that that the CompTech Inc. will give physical security through locks which restrain access to touchy information and data inside the DOD. Physical obstructions will be introduced inside the DOD to preclude access to information distribution centers. The physical hindrances that CompTech Inc. will accommodate the DOD incorporate passwords to section and leave entryways including the lifts. Through physical assurance, the security of information inside the office will be ensured. So as to conform to the data security program that is suggested by the DOD, CompTech Inc. will guarantee that the office recuperates rapidly from any misfortunes of information that radiate from security breaks. The organization will accomplish this through the plan and establishment of information recuperation programming that will go about as a remedial control for information misfortunes. This will guarantee accessibility of information for use with no postponements subsequently execution of fast restorative measures. The Critical Program Information inside DODÃ¢â¬â¢s prerequisites and orders will be clung to by CompTech Inc. in its procedural controls. The organization will structure and present preparing applications will help workers inside the division to have sufficient abilities and information on protecting the framework. This will prompt a circumstance where the honesty of data inside the DOD is kept up. CompTech Inc. will furnish the DOD with secure frameworks which are planned and introduced with firewalls,
Tuesday, August 11, 2020
Why Mind Mapping - Focus Have you ever asked yourself why mind mapping is becoming ever more popular among professionals and students alike? What is it that makes this technique so special and what are its benefits? In this article weve put together the main reasons why mind mapping is increasingly replacing other note taking formats in business and educational contexts. What Are Mind Maps? Mind maps are graphical representations of information. In contrast to the traditional, linear notes you make in a text document, mind maps let you capture thoughts, ideas and keywords on a blank canvas where you can organize them in a two-dimensional structure. The title/main idea is always located in the center of the map and thus always clearly visible. Related ideas branch off from the center in all directions, creating a radiant structure. Why Should I Mind Map? âThe soul never thinks without a mental image.â -Aristotle There are many reasons why mind mapping is used by millions of professionals, creatives and students all over the world. Here are the top 4: Mind maps structure information. Mind maps can store and structure vast amounts of information. They display hierarchy, show relationships between individual ideas and enable you to see the âbig pictureâ at a glance. These features also make mind maps an ideal tool to present information to others, create knowledge pools and solve complex problems. Mind maps enhance productivity. Mind mapping enables you to learn faster, communicate more efficiently and brainstorm more effectively. Whether youâre planning a project at work or writing a scientific paperâ"mind mapping will help you save tremendous amounts of time. According to a survey by the Mind Mapping Software Blog, mind mapping software can increase productivity by an average of 23%. Mind maps foster creativity. There are two things that make mind maps the best brainstorming tool out there. One: The act of developing a mind map stimulates our brain like no other technique and fosters a creative flow of ideas. Two: Mind maps allow you to transcribe those ideas with incredible speed, making for a virtually frictionless thought organization. During a study1 done in 2004 about the effectiveness of mind mapping for students writing assignments, 10 out of 12 people found that mind mapping improved their writing. Not only is it a great technique for students to prepare their essays and papers, its also a fantastic method for bloggers to outline articles and for authors to overcome writers block. See also: 6 Tips to Improve Your Creativity Mind maps improve memory and recall. Mind maps present information visually. They feature a number of powerful mental triggers such as images, colors, shapes and connections which help our brain process and memorize large amounts of information. Studies have found that mind maps can improve memory by 10-15%, others go even higher and estimate improvements of up to 32%.2 Especially students with learning difficulties such as dyslexia or high-functioning autism have reported that they find mind maps to be invaluable study aids. Have you read enough to give the mind map technique a try? Start Mind Mapping Still not convinced? Maybe youre right to be cautious. Check out the Top 7 Reasons NOT to Mind Map 1 Wai Ling, C. (2004), âThe Effectiveness of Using Mind Mapping Skills in Enhancing Secondary One and Secondary Four Studentsâ Writing in a CMI Schoolâ. University of Hong Kong, Masters dissertation. 2 Toi, H (2009), âResearch on how Mind Map improves Memoryâ. Paper presented at the International Conference on Thinking, Kuala Lumpur, 22nd to 26th June 2009. Why Mind Mapping - Focus Have you ever asked yourself why mind mapping is becoming ever more popular among professionals and students alike? What is it that makes this technique so special and what are its benefits? In this article weve put together the main reasons why mind mapping is increasingly replacing other note taking formats in business and educational contexts. What Are Mind Maps? Mind maps are graphical representations of information. In contrast to the traditional, linear notes you make in a text document, mind maps let you capture thoughts, ideas and keywords on a blank canvas where you can organize them in a two-dimensional structure. The title/main idea is always located in the center of the map and thus always clearly visible. Related ideas branch off from the center in all directions, creating a radiant structure. Why Should I Mind Map? âThe soul never thinks without a mental image.â -Aristotle There are many reasons why mind mapping is used by millions of professionals, creatives and students all over the world. Here are the top 4: Mind maps structure information. Mind maps can store and structure vast amounts of information. They display hierarchy, show relationships between individual ideas and enable you to see the âbig pictureâ at a glance. These features also make mind maps an ideal tool to present information to others, create knowledge pools and solve complex problems. Mind maps enhance productivity. Mind mapping enables you to learn faster, communicate more efficiently and brainstorm more effectively. Whether youâre planning a project at work or writing a scientific paperâ"mind mapping will help you save tremendous amounts of time. According to a survey by the Mind Mapping Software Blog, mind mapping software can increase productivity by an average of 23%. Mind maps foster creativity. There are two things that make mind maps the best brainstorming tool out there. One: The act of developing a mind map stimulates our brain like no other technique and fosters a creative flow of ideas. Two: Mind maps allow you to transcribe those ideas with incredible speed, making for a virtually frictionless thought organization. During a study1 done in 2004 about the effectiveness of mind mapping for students writing assignments, 10 out of 12 people found that mind mapping improved their writing. Not only is it a great technique for students to prepare their essays and papers, its also a fantastic method for bloggers to outline articles and for authors to overcome writers block. See also: 6 Tips to Improve Your Creativity Mind maps improve memory and recall. Mind maps present information visually. They feature a number of powerful mental triggers such as images, colors, shapes and connections which help our brain process and memorize large amounts of information. Studies have found that mind maps can improve memory by 10-15%, others go even higher and estimate improvements of up to 32%.2 Especially students with learning difficulties such as dyslexia or high-functioning autism have reported that they find mind maps to be invaluable study aids. Have you read enough to give the mind map technique a try? Start Mind Mapping Still not convinced? Maybe youre right to be cautious. Check out the Top 7 Reasons NOT to Mind Map 1 Wai Ling, C. (2004), âThe Effectiveness of Using Mind Mapping Skills in Enhancing Secondary One and Secondary Four Studentsâ Writing in a CMI Schoolâ. University of Hong Kong, Masters dissertation. 2 Toi, H (2009), âResearch on how Mind Map improves Memoryâ. Paper presented at the International Conference on Thinking, Kuala Lumpur, 22nd to 26th June 2009.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Creating a film, whether it is on an independent or studio level, is a long, meticulous process. It can often take several years, from the time an idea is developed for a screenplay to the moment it gains distribution, for a movie to reach the masses. An example of this is Apocalypse Now, directed by Francis Ford Coppola, which took over three years to get through pre and postproduction (Hearts of Darkness). The creative process of making a film from an idea to a completed project is an incredibly intricate process, and it includes numerous people doing a multitude of jobs. Every movie starts with an idea. This idea for a story is then developed and turned into a treatment, an outline, and after several drafts, a completed screenplay. Concepts for a story can come from many different mediums including: plays, novels, short stories, newspaper articles, life stories, previous films, and television programs (Fortunato). Because acquiring the rights to use previously developed material i s an expensive and difficult process, many writers will come up with ideas based upon their own knowledge and experiences. After writing and rewriting the screenplay, the final step before selling is to copy write the material. The next step to developing the film is to acquire financing, and to determine a budget. However, in oder to determine a budget a production schedule must be created. To figure out a schedule one must first breakdown the script scene by scene. When determining shootingShow MoreRelatedFilm Review : Making A Film1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMaking a film takes a very complex process. This is why films sometimes take months and even years to make. Filmmaking is always broken up into 5 steps. Filmmaking takes a process of the development of the film, the pre-production, production, the post-production, and distribution. This is when the production begins to take shape. Ideas for the film are created and the screenplay is written and edited. During this part of the process financing is planned out and looked at what can be afforded, whatRead MorePixar Case Study Essay1336 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesa graphics division for LucasFilms (Shamsie, 2001). This continued until 1985, when Catmull finally turned to Steve Jobs with the view to making full length feature films using computer animation. After more than a year of negotiations, Steve Jobs then purchased the graphics division and renamed it Pixar Animation Studios (Shamsie, 2001). A three year film contract with Disney was negotiated in 1991 which resulted in the movie Toy Story being released in 1995 (Shamsie, 2001). Toy Story becameRead MoreCreative Talent And Risk Of Pixar1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesoperating a creative organization. He bases his outline on the key assumption that finding and supporting smart people is much more important to Pixar than good individual ideas (Catmull, 2008). The principles and practices for managing creative talent and risk are proven successful and were transferred to the revived Disney Animation Studio after the merger in 2006. Pixar sees its creativity supporting structure as a competitive advantage based on the fact that all nine released films were huge commercialRead MorePixar1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAcademy Award Ã ®-winning computer animation studio with the technical, creative and production capabilities to create a new generation of animated feature films, merchandise and other related products. Pixar s objective is to combine proprietary technology and world-class creative talent to develop computer-animated feature films with memorable characters and heartwarming stories that appeal to audiences of all ages. Feature Films On November 22, 1995, Pixar Animation Studios forever impacted theRead MoreFilm Industry : Creative Industry1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFilm Industry CREATIVE INDUSTRY REPORT Mickey Brestakova | HND 3D Animation | 26/09/17Ã¢â¬Æ' Background and History of Creative Industry The BritishÃ¢â¬â¢s creative industries have never been stronger. British creators are behind some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s successful video games, UK architectural corporations lead on high-profile projects across the world, while British films are taking the most wanted of international industry awards. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a way to describe a lot of different activities which have creativity atRead MoreStudio Systems : The Studio System1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproduction.1 A studio is a company in business for making films for example Paramount and Warner Bros are studios.1 These studios have a system called Ã¢â¬Å"studio systemsÃ¢â¬ in which they operate the filmmaking process.1 In mass production systems, writers, directors, actors and all workers in between are under contracts.1 These studios have ultimate control on what is being made, how the producers are making it, what cast and crew were to take part and how the film was to be distributed.1 Large-scale productionRead MoreHow Did Directors And Film Execution Begin?1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Directors demand their films to be felt. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the point of creating a film if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t invoke thought or feelings? Hence the discussion of filmmaking and the important role the director has in executing a film as a body of work and or art form. However, one has to ask, how did directors and film execution begin? 1829 was the year of inspiration in reference to illusion and or motion. The first ever phenakistiscope or phenakitiscope was created to portray a moving picture whichRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Pick Up A Camera 873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEverything after that youÃ¢â¬â¢re just negotiating your budget and your fee.Ã¢â¬ Anyone can be a filmmaker if they please. But while filmmaking is easy to learn, it takes years of practice. Many filmmakers take years honing their craft, striving to improve their creative skills and become better. From the 19th century to the present, filmmaking has been a growing and succeeding career. The first motion picture ever was made in the year 1872 when an English photographer by the name of Eadweard Muybridge was experimentingRead More Photography Essay1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesblurring of action is not just done at the push of a button, it takes knowledge and an understanding of how apertures and shutter speeds relate to each other under different circumstances with different types of film (Barbara London and John Upton 98). Art or not, photography is a creative process. Another characteristic that sets apart photography fine artist compared to the rest of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s photographers is larger negative sizes (Henry Horenstein 181). Most fine art photographersRead MoreMy Favorite Career : My Future Life And Career1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin the film industry. I have always had an interest in the creation of movies and I have always loved to watch movies. Watching Star Wars for most of my life has definitely contributed to my love of films. I also have acquired a love of making films by trying it myself. My friends and I have made multiple short films in the past and I loved it. I realized that I can do what I love to do professionally when I get older and it encouraged me to do more research and write this paper. The film industry
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
When dealing with someone who is being bullied they may often be upset and itÃ¢â¬â¢s very important to take the problem seriously. The child/young person must be listened to in a safe and confidential environment where they are able to express their distress without fear of being embarrassed and where they are free from reprisals. In any case of suspected bullying, concerns about possible signs or changes in behaviour should be reported to the designated person. It is necessary to take what the child says seriously as it will take a lot of courage to report it. Reassure the child that they are not to blame and explain that it will be need to be passed onto someone who can help them. Write down any observations or what has been said but keep the information secure. Never promise to keep the information a secret or draw conclusions, only report what has been noticed or reported. It is necessary to keep lines of communication open with the child concerned and to update them of any out comes both, positive and negative. Support must be given on an ongoing basis so that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel as though they are alone. Some parents may really struggle to help their child who is being bullying. Some parents may have to cope with the information that their child is a bully. It is necessary to discuss what has happened with parents and work out a plan with them for handling the situation. It is important to listen to parents and let them explain how they feel. Share useful information so theyShow MoreRelatedWorkplace Bullying : Costly And Preventable859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWorkplace bullying is a very serious act that has a negative impact on individuals and the organization as a whole. Baack (2012), describes workplace bullying as an interpersonal conflict that is a repeated mistreatment of one or more persons (ch.7, p.19). Unfortunately, despite workplace bullying being so harmful, it is often a common occurrence. In the article, Workplace Bullying: Costly and Preventable, Wiedmer (2010), cites a survey conducted in 2007 by the Workplace Bullying Institute-Zogby;Read MoreThe School Of Anti Bull ying1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto the child/children who engage in bullying behaviour have: Ã¢â¬ ¢ sanctions and learning programmes which hold them to account for their behaviour and help them to face up to the harm they have caused Ã¢â¬ ¢ they learn to behave in ways that do not cause harm in future because they have developed their emotional skills and knowledge. Ã¢â¬ ¢ they learn how they can take steps to repair the harm they have caused. Ã¢â¬ ¢ the whole-school community is clear about the anti-bullying stance the school takes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ pupils, asRead MoreReflection Paper On Bullying1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto me. Go ahead, answer the question. Exactly. There is never a valid reason for bullying. I am not going to ramble on about the statistics, enforce the elementary anti-bullying practices, or even attempt to implement alternative solutions. My goal is to expose you to your roles in the bullying circle, motivate you to care, and hopefully drive you to change your own behaviors and the way you approach bullying. Regardless of the attempts by educators to terminate maltreatment in schools, usRead MoreBullying Is Becoming More Spread At An Alarming And Dangerous Rate Essay1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Bullying in schools is becoming more spread at an alarming and dangerous rate. Specifically,School systems that are commonly viewed as excellent sources of receiving education are becoming a host of parasitic bullying, negatively affecting students learning environments. The presence of bullying is presented like a disease and is growing. It has reached a point that to prevent it from becoming worse, school systems need to intervene or establish stricter policies towards anti-bullying so thatRead MoreBullying Is Becoming More Spread At An Alarming And Dangerous Rate Essay1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesreceiving an education are becoming a host of parasitic bullying, negatively affecting students learning environments. Central Idea: The presence of bullying is growing. It has reached a point that as it is becoming worse in school systems and is affecting students of all ages. This calls for a need of intervention or the establishment of stricter policies towards anti-bullying. Introduction In spite of anyone at any age being a victim of bullying, children and teenagers are the primary targets.ChildrenRead MoreThe Department Of Education Is Clear That No Form Of Bullying1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Department of Education is clear that no form of bullying should be tolerated. The current anti-bullying guidance for schools is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ ÃÆ'Safe to Learn: embedding anti-bullying work in schoolsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬TM We strongly abide by the anti-bullying policy. Everyone has the right to feel welcome, secure and happy. Bullying of any sort stops members of the setting from being able to achieve their full potential and prevents equality of opportunity. Bullying is anti-social behaviour and affects everyone it is unacceptableRead MoreCyber Bullying Has Become A Significant Problem Among Teenagers1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageselectronics. Verbal bullying has always happened in schools, but cyber bullying has become a significant problem amongst teenagers. Electronic access to social media outlets such as facebook, twitter, vine and snapchat, has made it easy for people to bully others and since there is no physical contact; it makes the consequences seem less severe. Despite the absence of physical contact or audible insults, cyber bullying can be even more traumatizing than traditional forms of bullying. It takes guts toRead MoreAdvertising And Peer Pressure : Advertising1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesskinny. Facebook today has advertisements all ov er the page. Some on the side and some in your news feed. Though, you can easily distinguish advertisements from friend posts on your news feed by looking for the sponsored text at the bottom of the suspected post. Advertisers use social media to their benefit. Facebook and Twitter gather a lot of data about user anonymously and allow for greater control of who sees their ad. This was not possible in the television medium as anyone could be watching TVRead MoreAnalysis of Fade To Black by Alex Flinn Essay586 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn the beginning of the story Clinton is suspected as the person who has commit the crime. He is faced with problems of others. He is questioned by both the police and his family, of where was he when Alex was attacked. But Clinton canÃ¢â¬â¢t say where he was because he threw a rock at the CrusanÃ¢â¬â¢s house and hurt his sisters best friend. He also called his father when his mother hates when Clinton would do that. Both Alex and Clinton struggle with problems of their family and others. Alex feels asRead MoreBullying Policies And Procedures For Children And Young People1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin place to prevent bullying and most schools have a zero policy to it. We must also be aware of our own settings policy and procedures for bullying incidents and ensure that we always uphold these policies. If we do this then it leads to trust that the school and the staff take bullying seriously and will not allow it, thus giving the children and young people confidence to report any bullying incidents in confidence, knowing that it will then be looked into. The anti bullying policies and procedures
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome, also called TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s disorder is named after the neurologist, Gilles de la Tourette. Sometimes it is referred to as GTS but more often it is simply called TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s or Ã¢â¬ËTSÃ¢â¬â¢. It is an inherited neurological disorder marked by movement-based (motor) tics which are abrupt, repetitive, stereotyped, non-rhythmic movements, as well as vocal (verbal or phonic) tics which are involuntary sounds produced by moving air through the nose, mouth, or throat. We will write a custom essay sample on Tourettes Syndrome in Children or any similar topic only for you Order Now TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes transient and chronic tics. This disorder may appear in multiple family members, and often appears (co-morbid) with other behavioral disorders, in particular Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)Ã¢â¬ (Hawley 2008). People with this disorder have normal life expectancy and intelligence, but symptoms can lead to decrease in normal activities (Walkup, Mink Hollenbeck 2006). TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome, as described in the psychiatric diagnostic tool DSM-IV-TR criteria is Ã¢â¬Å"associated with distress or social or functional impairmentÃ¢â¬ (Hawley 2008). Onset and Diagnosis. The most common first sign to alert people to visit the doctor for a possible presence of TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s is a facial tic such as Ã¢â¬Å"rapidly blinking eyes or twitches of the mouthÃ¢â¬ (NTSA 2009). Unintended, involuntary sounds such as throat clearing, shrugging or tics of the limbs may be initial signs but in certain case, although rare, the symptoms become abruptly with multiple symptoms of movements and sounds. Chronic tic disorder is diagnosed with the presence of single or multiple tics, and the presence of motor or phonic tics (but not both) which is present for a year or more. On the other hand, TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s which falls under the category of above is diagnosed when there are multiple motor tics occurring at the same time with one phonic tic and is manifested for more than a year. As a general rule, simple motor tics like blinking are first noticed on the child at around 5-10 years old, while vocal tics start manifesting after 8 years old but before the child is 15 years old. Symptoms of the disorder can be seen in infancy but this is a rarity. As a rule, the symptoms may come and go and children show identifiable signs at round 7 years old (Hawley 2008), and before 18-21years old (Black 2007). Studies found the most onset was between 9-14 years of age (Leckman 2003, Black 2007). Another study showed that tics started below 18 years, but 5 relatives had an onset after the age of 21 years. Affected persons will Ã¢â¬Å"blink, jerk, grunt, clear their throats, swing their arms, grasp or clasp others, have obsessive-compulsive behaviors or use verbal expletives (coprolalia) uncontrollablyÃ¢â¬ (Tabers 2001, 2207). In some cases, people suffering from TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s can control the verbal expletives in public but they will express it vigorously once they are in private. Coprolalia, Ã¢â¬Å"the uncontrollable utterance of socially objectionable or taboo words or phrasesÃ¢â¬ is the most popular symptom of TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s but it is not required for a diagnosis hence about 90% of patients afflicted with it only TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s does not have coprolalia. The most common, initially noticed motor tic is eye blinking and the vocal tic is repetitive throat clearing (Black 2007). The disorder often persists throughout the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lifespan but severity peaks in adolescence and thereafter decreases to a point that it is almost not bothersome to the person. This average though can be very misleading because some form of fluctuation or recurrence have been documented although it is not severe. There have also been rare cases that reported a recurrence of tics that is bothersome enough to seek medical attention, and have had to maintain lifelong treatment due to progressively worsening of tic activity (Black 2007). Prevalence. TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome used to be known as a rare condition but it is now contended by doctors and psychologists that it may be more common but misdiagnosed because some cases are so mild that patients and their families discard it as being an oddity rather than TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s. Most children with TS have mild, barely bothersome, non-disabling symptoms, and it is difficult to distinguish the signs of the disorder as opposed to a child acting out such as Mimicking others, blinking being viewed as tormenting someone who may have done so because they wear glasses, or by doing things that others would view as the child just trying to get attention, therefore, medical attention is not a thought to the parents of the child who is doing these things. In some patients the tics improve and disappear as they grow older; hence, they never seek medical attention. The estimated prevalence is 0. 7-4. 2% (Hawley 2008) based on children checked in public schools. TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s is known to be familial and its prevalence rate in first-degree relatives is 5-15% (about 10 times the prevalence rate in the general population). Chronic motor tics occurring, without vocal tics has also been documented as being common in relatives (Black 2007). In special education programs, 26% of students identified tics, as compared to 6% of students in mainstream classrooms led to identification of co-morbidity with having symptoms of TS included ADHD and OCD (Hawley 2008), impulse control disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as difficulties with living and adaptation (Walkup, Mink Hollenbeck 2006). It is estimated that 1 in 10 children per 1,000 have TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s disorder, and as many as 1 per 100 people may have tic disorders. In children, male to female ratio varies from 2-10:1 (Hawley 2008), boys have an increased prevalence for chronic tics compared to girls in exhibiting 5:1 ratio, although some studies show between 2:1 and 10:1 ratios (Black 2007). If OCD data is included as a variant of TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s, their quantities added to the total, the ratio between boys and girls become equal (Hawley 2008). Causes. Environmental factors may contribute to the cause but up to now exact causes of the disorder is still are not known. The clinical phenomenon are very similar across social classes, ethnicity and culture which suggests a genetic basis and the disorder has been reported globally (Hawley 2008). As children pass through adolescence, the tics decrease in severity and it is extremely rare for TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s to persist in adulthood. Whether the resolution is a compensation of the neuro system or a resolution of the underlying pathology is unclear (Hawley 2008). Adults who show signs of the disorder are likely to have shown symptoms since childhood, although these may have been so mild that they were generally unnoticed and undiagnosed. In the US though, most diagnosed patients being examined at research centers and affiliated with lay organizations are white. But this does not necessarily mean that Caucasians have a predisposition, it may merely be due to differences healthcare-seeking behaviors. A non-genetic cause may also exist and is still under research and investigation. Additional evidence is being gathered regarding the differences in severity between affected twins with the twin having experienced peri-natal complications experiencing increased symptom severity (Hyde 1992, Black 2007). Also garnering much attention is the theory that TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome may be caused by an abnormal immune response to streptococcal infection. In several documented cases, tics began suddenly after a streptococcal infection. As a result of this the case definition for a Ã¢â¬Å"post-streptococcal autoimmune neuro-psychiatric disordersÃ¢â¬ came into being (Snider 2003, Black 2007). The difference between other movement disorders such as choreas, dystonias, and dyskinesias and that of TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â these are Ã¢â¬Å"temporarily suppressible, non-rhythmic and more often than not are preceded by a premonitory urgeÃ¢â¬ (Black 2007). Just before an onset, an afflicted individual feels an urge that is similar to one felt before a sneeze or an itch that needs scratching. This is often pictured as a buildup of tension and energy which they are then able to consciously release so the sensation is relieved. It is further described as Ã¢â¬Å"something stuck in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s throat, a localized discomfort in the shoulders that leads to the need to clear oneÃ¢â¬â¢s throat or shrug the shouldersÃ¢â¬ (Hawley 2008). The actual tic is eventually felt as relieving this tension or sensation, similar to clearing the throat or shrugging the shoulder. This is how Ã¢â¬Å"premonitory sensory phenomenaÃ¢â¬ or premonitory urges are described by sufferers. Medication and Treatment. Often, medication is unnecessary and a safe and effective medication for each and every case of tic is yet to be introduced. There have been medications as well as therapies that help to reduce certain types of tics, but not cure it. In general, the medical management of TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s is the treatment of coexisting behavior symptoms, change in diet, patient and family education. The patient and family are educated regarding how to effectively handle the manifestations of the disorder, and if an effective adaptation is made, they can avoid the use of medications. Medication is only considered when there is substantial interference with social and academic performance, as well as activities of daily living. The target is not for completely eliminating the symptoms but merely to alleviate the social embarrassment and discomfort so as to improve the social and academics life of the child. Various pharmacological agents are used to reduce the symptomsÃ¢â¬â¢ severity but it only treats the symptom and often the medications are have neurological effects whereas it has been argued that the disorder is a neurobiological condition. No curative or preventive treatments are atill available for this neurobiological or even biological aspect. There is a growing movement to go against medications because this being a chronic disorder, the goal should be long-term benefit rather than quick improvement at any cost. Families are also getting increasingly worried that the medications might have a detrimental effect in their children, that perhaps in the end, it Ã¢â¬ËdamagesÃ¢â¬â¢ them rather than helping. It has been Resources for the child and families are available in several way which include educating students and school personnel regarding the nature the syndrome as well as improving the school environment will help the patient to avoid pharmacotherapy. Parents and families members of a child who has TS can turn to agencies such as the National Tourettes Association, counseling with the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s, videos, and self help books. Reference List Black, Kevin J.. , Webb, Heather. Neurology: Pediatric Neurology: Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders. Mar 30, 2007. Available from eMedicine Specialties at http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/1182258-overview Hawley, Jason S. , Darnall, Carl R. , Gray, Sharette K. Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral Ã¢â¬â Tourette Syndrome. 23 June 2008. Available from eMedicine Specialties at http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/289457-overview. National Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. Tourette Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions Website http://www. tsa-usa. org. Available at http://www. tsa-usa. org/Medical/Faqs. html. 2009. TaberÃ¢â¬â¢s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome. (pp. 2207-2208). Philadephia, PA. F. A. Davis Company. 2001. Walkup, John T. , Mink, Jonathan W. , Hollenbeck, Peter J. Edition: Tourette Syndrome. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. 2006. How to cite Tourettes Syndrome in Children, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm. Answer: Introduction Robot is a very essential in many manufacturing industries as it improves the work done by much human labour and also reduces the chances of errors because they are job specific and such errors are inevitable to human, the initial cost of setting up of a robot is high but it will reduce the cost of labour if it starts to work. Some of the distinctive characteristics of a robot include the following: Sensing: Ability to sense its environment by giving it sensors such as light sensor, touch sensor, sonar sensor and chemical sensor, Movement: Ability to move around its environment with a rolling wheel, walking or even propelling. Energy: Ability to power itself, it can be electrical, solar or battery powered. Intelligence: Ability to be smart, through programming, so as to know what it is supposed to do. The robot is a combination of the system containing a control system, sensors, and power supply all working together to perform a task(Bruno Siciliano, 2016, p. 174). The major aim of this proposal is to design an electronic and electrical circuit that is capable of driving and detecting the presence of an obstacle and then commanding a robot to avoid the obstacle management. The moving robot should be able to detect and avoid a potential obstacle on its way and then change the direction of motion accordingly so that its motion is not interfered with(Dilip Kumar Pratihar, 2010, p. 145). The mode of operation should be automatic without any human or manual involvement. The following are some of the components that are used in this design: Photodiodes: These are devices which allow current to flow in one particular direction. The types of diodes that are used in this design are the photodiodes. Motors: It is made to be driven by DC electrical power, the most common types of DC motor are the Brush DC Motor, Brushless DC motor and Coreless DC motor which use both communications internally or externally to create an oscillating AC from DC source(G.N. Roberts, 2006, p. 147). Motor Driver ICs: A driver is an electronic component used to control another electronic device; they are used to regulate the flow of current through a circuit, It performs as a current amplifier because it takes a low current signal and gives a high current signal which is used to drive the motor hence regulating the current in the circuit, the drivers will also regulate the rotation of the motor. When designing the circuit diagram, there is a need of two obstacle sensor since one module may result in unpredictable motor movement and may not assist in smooth diversion or turning of the robot towards a path that is free(Ghangrekar, 2009, p. 174). The diagram below shows a circuit diagram of a single module for the proposed design of an obstacle avoiding the robotic system. A pair of modules will be necessary to the left side and right side of the robotic vehicle. This system is designed to function without special motor driver ICs and without the microcontroller. This means that this system can function without any complex motor driver IC and without any kind of coding. The circuit uses DC motor irrespective of its power, hence an obstacle avoiding vehicle of high power can be made by the use of a similar circuit(Gregor Schner, 2015, p. 245). The IC 555 is designed to function as an IR transmitter and is set to produce a constant frequency of 38 kHz, while the circuit of transistor adjacent is designed as a stage of IR sensor or the stage of the receiver. If the right side module is the first to sense an obstacle in the track, the frequency of 38 kHz produced by 555 IC will be reflected towards the sensor of the adjacent circuit of the receiver. The receiver will trigger the associated transistors instantly such that the ultimate driver transistor is reserved from conducting. Then the motor that is being controlled by this transistor is meant to be situated on the left sideways of the robotic vehicle, which is on the opposite side of the module(Hajime Asama, 2013, p. 196). Likewise, the motor situated on the right side is definitely controlled by the left sideways of the module. Subsequently, when the right-hand side detector of obstacle module triggers, it halts the motor on the left-hand side while the motor on the right side is permitted to move in a normal way. This condition will lead to the robotic vehicle being compelled to take the diversion of the left-hand side which means that the left module begins receiving signals that are stronger and continue forcing the robot to continue stronger on the diversion ongoing until the obstacle is avoided completely(Honghai Liu, 2012, p. 179). The module will then halt receiving the signals of the obstacle and the robot starts moving forward ordinarily on its new pathway. While the other deviation is performed the left side of the module is compelled to become more secluded from the object so that it does not get the chance to hinder the procedure and permit smooth and clean vehicle diversion. Similar procedures are executed in case the left-hand side module senses the obstacle ahead of the module's right side. There is also the presence of stage of disabling circuit in the module that is connected to the right side and the left side modules(Ingemar J. Cox, 2012, p. 249). This stage is incorporated purposely to make sure that both the modules are not triggered at the same time. For example, when the right side module becomes the first to sense an object, it instantly disables the left side module and starts the deviation on the robot on the right. The motors are furnished with gear boxes so that the motion is maintained originally at the level controlled. The complete layout of the fight and left module and the other electrical connections management and components are as shown in the figure below: This is a design of the proposed obstacle avoiding robotic vehicle circuit without using a microcontroller hence the components are affordable as shown in the table below: Component Cost (Dollars) DC Motor Drivers 85 Battery (12V) 47 8 Photodiodes 183 Transistors 19 Connecting wires 0.5 Rubber wheels 0.8 2 IR sensor 140 555 IC 360 2 Motors 112 Total 617.3 Ways of improving the design This design can be improved by incorporating other types of sensors to that it does not only avoid obstacles but as temperature, light, and water. The sensitivity of the robot towards the obstacles can be improved by using powerful sensors that can detect obstacles from a far distance before the vehicle reaches the place(Jadran Lenar?i?, 2012, p. 274). Powerful ICs with higher frequency more than 38 kHz can be used for the faster sensitivity of the robotic vehicle. The components used in designing this obstacle robotic vehicle can be reused to prevent the pollution of the environment. The rubber wheels and connecting wires are environmentally friendly. Batteries cannot be disposed and so they affect the environment negatively. Motors, sensors, ICs, transistors, and diodes should be disposed of properly since they cannot decompose(Honghai Liu, 2012, p. 156). Conclusion The robot is a very essential in many manufacturing industries as it improves the work done by much human labour and also reduces the chances of errors because they are job specific and such errors are inevitable to human. The aim of this project proposal is to design an obstacle avoiding robot without the use of micro controller and coding. The design discussed above meets the all the requirements and is also cheap and simple to design. Bibliography Bruno Siciliano, O. K., 2016. Springer Handbook of Robotics. Michigan: Springer, 2016. Dilip Kumar Pratihar, L. C. J., 2010. Intelligent Autonomous Systems: Foundations and Applications. New York: Springer Science Business Media, 2010. G.N. Roberts, R. S., 2006. Advances in Unmanned Marine Vehicles. Michigan: IET, 2006. Ghangrekar, S. Y., 2009. A Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for an Autonomous Robotic Vehicle. China: the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2009. Gregor Schner, J. S. D. F. T. R. G., 2015. Dynamic Thinking: A Primer on Dynamic Field Theory. California: Oxford University Press, 2015. Hajime Asama, T. F. T. A. I. E., 2013. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems 2. Spain: Springer Science Business Media, 2013. Honghai Liu, D. G. R. J. H. Y. L., 2012. Robot Intelligence: An Advanced Knowledge Processing Approach. London: Springer Science Business Media, 2010. Ingemar J. Cox, G. T. W., 2012. Autonomous Robot Vehicles. New York: Springer Science Business Media, 2012. Jadran Lenar?i?, V. P. C., 2012. Recent Advances in Robot Kinematics. Spain: Springer Science Business Media, 2012.